General Information Of Pakistan

Geography
Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan
Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian
Subcontinent
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea,
between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China
in the north
Geographic
coordinates:
30 00 N, 70 00 E
Area: total: 796,095 sq km land: 770,875 sq km
water: 25,220 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of
California

Land
Boundaries:
total: 6,774 km border countries:
Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km
Coastline: 1,046 km
Maritime
claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24
nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the
edge of the continental margin
Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in
northwest; arctic in north
Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north
and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Elevation
extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest
point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m
Natural
resources:
land, extensive natural gas reserves,
limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone
Land use: arable land: 24.44% permanent crops: 0.84%
other: 74.72% (2005)
Irrigated
land:
198,700 sq km (2003)
Natural
hazards:
frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe
especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains
(July and August)
Current
Environment Issues:
water pollution from raw sewage, industrial
wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources;
most of the population does not have access to potable water;
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification
International
Environment Agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not
ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 People
Population: 193,238,868 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 33,774,720/female
31,967,787) 15-24 years: 21.6% (male 21,560,699/female 20,223,691) 25-54
years: 35.1% (male 35,272,193/female 32,587,417) 55-64 years: 5% (male
4,767,260/female 4,832,047) 65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,877,418/female
4,375,636) (2013 est.) population pyramid:
Median age: total: 21.9 years male: 21.9 years female:
22 years (2012 est.)
Population
growth rate:
1.551% (2012 est.)
Birth rate: 24.3 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Death rate: 6.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration
rate:
-2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15
years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and
over: 0.89 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2011
est.)
Infant
mortality rate:
total: 61.27 deaths/1,000 live births male:
64.51 deaths/1,000 live births female: 57.88 deaths/1,000 live births
(2012 est.)
Life
expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.35 years male: 64.52
years female: 68.28 years (2012 est.)
Total
fertility rate:
2.96 children born/woman (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS –
adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS –
people living with HIV/AIDS:
98,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS –
deaths:
5,800 (2009 est.)
Nationality: noun: Pakistani(s) adjective: Pakistani
Ethnic groups: Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%,
Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, other 6.28%
Religions: Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia
10-15%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6% (2010 est.)
Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi
variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui
1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most
government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8%
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and
write total population: 54.9% male: 68.6% female: 40.3% (2009 est.)
 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of
Pakistan conventional short form: Pakistan local long form: Jamhuryat
Islami Pakistan local short form: Pakistan former: West Pakistan
Government
type:
federal republic
Capital: name: Islamabad geographic coordinates: 33
41 N, 73 03 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC
during Standard Time)
Administrative
divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital
territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad
Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier
Province), Punjab, Sindh note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the
disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities:
Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
Independence: 14 August 1947 (from British India)
National
holiday:
Republic Day, 23 March (1956)
Constitution: 12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977,
restored 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages
in 2002; amended 31 December 2003; suspended 3 November 2007; restored 15
December 2007; last amended 28 February 2012
Legal system: common law system with Islamic law influence
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note – there are
joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and
non-Muslims
Executive
branch:
note: the country has a caretaker government
until the next general election set for 11 May 2013 and a new government
is formed chief of state: President Asif Ali ZARDARI (since 9 September
2008) head of government: Prime Minister (Caretaker) Mir Hazar Khan KHOSO
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime
minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by secret ballot through an Electoral College
comprising the members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial
assemblies for a five-year term; election last held on 6 September 2008
(next to be held 11 May 2013); note – any person who is a Muslim and not
less than 45 years of age and qualified to be elected as a member of the
National Assembly can contest the presidential election; the prime
minister selected by the National Assembly election results: Asif Ali
ZARDARI elected president; ZARDARI 481 votes, SIDDIQUE 153 votes, SYED 44
votes; Prime Minister Raja Pervais ASHRAF elected by Parliament – ASHRAF
211 votes, Sardar Mehtab ABBASI 89 votes
Legislative
branch:
bicameral parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora
consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by
provincial assemblies and the territories’ representatives in the National
Assembly to serve six-year terms; one half are elected every three years)
and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members elected by popular vote;
60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members
serve five-year terms) elections: Senate – last held on 2 March 2012 (next
to be held in March 2015); National Assembly – last held on 18 February
2008 (next to be held on 11 May 2013) election results: Senate – percent
of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PPPP 41, PML-N 14, ANP 12, JUI-F
7, MQM 7, PML-Q 5, BNP-A 4, NPP 1, PML-F 1, independents 12; National
Assembly – percent of votes by party – NA; seats by party as of November
2012 – PPPP 125, PML-N 92, PML 50, MQM 24, ANP 13, JUI-F 8, PML-F 5, BNP-A
1, NPP 1, PPP-S 1, independents 18, unfilled seats – 4
Judicial
branch:
Supreme Court (justices appointed by the
president); Federal Islamic or Sharia Court
Political
parties and leaders:
Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali
KHAN]; Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A; Balochistan National
Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Hayee BALOCH]; Balochistan National Party-Mengal
or BNP-M; Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Syed Munawar HASAN]; Jamhoori Watan Party
or JWP; Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam
Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN]; Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul
HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat-i Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Abul Khair
ZUBAIR]; Millat-e-Jafferia [Allama Sajid NAQVI]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement
or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Peoples Party or NPP; Pakhtun-khwa Milli
Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT
[Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry
Shujaat HUSSAIN]; Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO];
Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Peoples
Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali
ZARDARI, co-chairman]; Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO];
Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN] note: political alliances in
Pakistan can shift frequently
Political
pressure groups and leaders:
other: military (most important political
force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists; small merchants
International
organization participation:
ADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA,
CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national
committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer),
MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP,
SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL,
UNMIT, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic
representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sheherbano
REHMAN chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008 telephone:
[1] (202) 243-6500 FAX: [1] (202) 686-1534 consulate(s) general: Chicago,
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (CA) consulate(s): Chicago,
Houston
Diplomatic
representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Olson
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad mailing address: 8100
Islamabad Pl., Washington, DC 20521-8100 telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000
FAX: [92] (51) 227-6427 consulate(s) general: Karachi consulate(s):
Lahore, Peshawar
 Economy
Decades of internal political
disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and
underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fifth
of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of
Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to expand a viable
export base for other manufactures has left the country vulnerable to
shifts in world demand. Official unemployment is under 6%, but this fails
to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and
underemployment remains high. Over the past few years, low growth and high
inflation, led by a spurt in food prices, have increased the amount of
poverty – the UN Human Development Report estimated poverty in 2011 at
almost 50% of the population. Inflation has worsened the situation,
climbing from 7.7% in 2007 to almost 12% for 2011, before declining to 10%
in 2012. As a result of political and economic instability, the Pakistani
rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to
an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 in
response to a balance of payments crisis. Although the economy has
stabilized since the crisis, it has failed to recover. Foreign investment
has not returned, due to investor concerns related to governance, energy,
security, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas
workers, averaging about $1 billion a month since March 2011, remain a
bright spot for Pakistan. However, after a small current account surplus
in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account
turned to deficit in fiscal year 2012, spurred by higher prices for
imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. Pakistan remains stuck
in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3% per year
from 2008 to 2012. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to
government revenues and energy production in order to spur the amount of
economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly
urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long
term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare,
adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and
reducing dependence on foreign donors.
GDP
(purchasing power parity):
GDP (purchasing power parity): $514.6
billion (2012 est.) $496.3 billion (2011 est.) $481.7 billion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official
exchange rate):
GDP (official exchange rate): $230.5 billion
(2012 est.)
GDP – real
growth rate:
3.7% (2012 est.) 3% (2011 est.) 3.1% (2010
est.)
GDP – per
capita (PPP):
GDP – per capita (PPP): $2,900 (2012 est.)
$2,800 (2011 est.) $2,800 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP –
composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.1% industry: 25.5% services:
54.4% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 60.36 million note: extensive export of
labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2012 est.)
Labor force –
by occupation:
agriculture: 45.1% industry: 20.7% services:
34.2% (2010 est.)
Unemployment
rate:
5.6% (2012 est.) 5.6% (2011 est.) note:
substantial underemployment exists
Population
below poverty line:
22.3% (FY05/06 est.)
Household
income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9% highest 10%: 39.3%
(FY05/06)
Distribution
of family income – Gini index:
30.6 (FY07/08) 41 (FY98/99)
Inflation rate
(consumer prices):
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.3%
(2012 est.) 11.9% (2011 est.)
Investment
(gross fixed):
Investment (gross fixed): 10.9% of GDP (2012
est.)
Budget: revenues: $29.51 billion expenditures:
$44.19 billion (2012 est.)
Public debt: 50.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 60.1% of GDP (2011
est.)
Agriculture –
products:
cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits,
vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing,
pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer,
shrimp
Industrial
production growth rate:
3% (2011 est.)
Electricity –
production:
94.65 billion kWh (2011 est.) country
comparison to the world: 35
Electricity –
consumption:
70.1 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity –
exports:
0 kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity –
imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Natural gas –
production:
42.9 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas –
consumption:
42.9 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas –
exports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas –
imports:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas –
proved reserves:
753.8 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Current
account balance:
-$4.632 billion (2012 est.) $268 million
(2011 est.)
Exports: $24.66 billion (2012 est.) $26.3 billion
(2011 est.)
Exports –
commodities:
textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth,
yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets
and rugs
Exports –
partners:
US 15%, UAE 9.7%, Afghanistan 9.5%, China
9.2%, UK 5%, Germany 4.5% (2012 est.)
Imports: $40.82 billion (2012 est.) $38.93 billion
(2011 est.)
Imports –
commodities:
petroleum, petroleum products, machinery,
plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard,
iron and steel, tea
Imports –
partners:
UAE 17.2%, China 15%, Saudi Arabia 11.2%,
Kuwait 8.9%, Malaysia 5.4%, Japan 4.3% (2012 est.)
Reserves of
foreign exchange and gold:
$13.5 billion (30 November 2012 est.) $18.09
billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt –
external:
$55.98 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$58.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of
direct foreign investment – at home:
$22.38 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$21.88 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of
direct foreign investment – abroad:
$1.482 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.432 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value
of publicly traded shares:
$32.76 billion (31 December 2011) $38.17
billion (31 December 2010) $33.24 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange
rates:
Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar – 95.1
(2012 est.) 86.3434 (2011 est.) 85.194 (2010 est.) 81.71 (2009) 70.64
(2008)
Fiscal year: 1 July – 30 June
 Communications
Telephones in
use:
5.722 million (2011) country comparison to
the world: 30
Cellular
Phones in use:
111 million (2011)
Telephone
system:
general assessment: the telecommunications
infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic
investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of
microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and
satellite networks; domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has
skyrocketed, exceeding 110 million by the end of 2011, up from only about
300,000 in 2000; more than 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that
have cell phone coverage and more than half of all Pakistanis have access
to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the
country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only
marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting
fixed-line service to rural areas international: country code – 92;
landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems
that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth
stations – 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational
international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad);
microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2011)
Radio
broadcast stations:
Television
broadcast stations:
Internet
country code:
.pk
Internet
hosts:
365,813 (2012)
Internet
users:
20.431 million (2009)
 Transportation
Airports: 151 (2012) country comparison to the world:
37
Airports
(paved runways) :
total: 107 over 3,047 m: 15 2,438 to 3,047
m: 20 1,524 to 2,437 m: 42 914 to 1,523 m: 20 under 914 m: 10 (2012)
Airports
(unpaved runways):
total: 44 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 914 to 1,523
m: 9 under 914 m: 24 (2012)
Heliports: 24 (2012)
Pipelines: gas 10,514 km; oil 2,013 km; refined
products 787 km (2010)
Railways : total: 7,791 km broad gauge: 7,479 km
1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified) narrow gauge: 312 km 1.000-m gauge
(2007)
Roadways : total: 260,760 km paved: 180,910 km
(includes 711 km of expressways) unpaved: 79,850 km (2007)
Merchant
marine :
total: 11 by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3,
petroleum tanker 3 registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall
Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
Ports and
terminals:
Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
 Military
Military
branches:
Pakistan Army (includes National Guard),
Pakistan Navy (includes Marines and Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan
Air Force (Pakistan Fiza’ya) (2013)
Military
service age and obligation:
17-23 years of age for voluntary military
service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the
Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female
pilots and sailors; service obligation (Navy) 10-18 years; retirement
required after 18-30 years service or age 40-52 (2012)
Manpower
available for military service :
males age 16-49: 48,453,305 females age
16-49: 44,898,096 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit
for military service :
males age 16-49: 37,945,440 females age
16-49: 37,381,549 (2010 est.)
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