History of Battle of Malazgirt
Today our article is about the Battle of Manzikert/Malazgirt. The Battle of Manzikert in August 1071 was not just a triumph for the Seljuk Turks, opening the entryways of Anatolia for them, yet a vital authentic second that changed the course of world governmental issues The Seljuks were a Central Asian clan that changed over to Sunni Islam in the start of eleventh century.
Consistently on Aug. 26, the whole Muslim world and Turks specifically, in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, remember triumph of the Seljuk Turks, driven by Sultan Alp Arslan, over the head of Byzantium. The phase of the fight, Manzikert is situated in present-day Muşlim in eastern Turkey. Much the same as the generally significant skirmishes of Hittin and Ain Jalut, the Battle of Manzikert was additionally essential. Its outcomes were felt for a few centuries in the district. To absolutely assess the results of the extremely notable second, the lifetime of Sultan Alp Arslan needs a concise assessment.
Click Here To Read Sultan Alp Arslan Complete History.
In 1063, After the passing of Tuğrul Bey, the real author of the Seljuk express a force battle emitted on the grounds that he didn’t have a beneficiary to the seat. His nephew Muhammad Alp Arslan would be picked with the assistance of his pastor Nizam al-Mulk, known for his insight, intensity of impact, and genius. Bedouin sources recall Sultan Alp Arslan as “the fortification of the state, Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan, child of Dawood Chaghri, child of Michael, child of Seljuk ” Alp Arslan, similar to his uncle Tuğrul Bey, was a brave and handy pioneer, and he took an extraordinary arrangement of solidifying his standard in the Seljuk-ruled nation before hoping to enslave new domains to his state. before making any outer triumphs the establishments of his standard and the soundness of the state from within It took just about seven years
Many Turkish students of history consider the Battle of Manzikert as the start of the success of Anatolia and its change into a lasting country for the Turks on the grounds that numerous Turkish groups got comfortable a few regions in eastern Anatolia after the war. Consequently, this was the start of the main time of the Turkish emirates in Anatolia. On Aug. 26, 1071, by the request for the Caliph Abbasid. evangelists were heard everywhere on the Muslim world, going to Sultan Alp Arslan and his warriors Sultan Alp Arslan arranged a huge armed force with the goal attacking Egypt to free it of the Fatimids. In transit, he assaulted the city of Diyarbakır and assumed responsibility for it, at that point blockaded Alrha (the present Şanlıurfa), yet he was unable to catch it as it was under the standard of the Byzantines. From that point forward, Alp Arslan took his military to Aleppo and assumed responsibility for it from favorable to Fatimid Mardasians. He at that point discovered that the Roman Emperor Romanus Diogenes came out with an enormous armed force to wreck the Seljuk state and end the Turkish presence in eastern Anatolia and Iran and afterward in Baghdad. High mountain Arslan quickly went toward the east of the Euphrates. Notwithstanding, on his way, he lost numerous fighters and gear. He additionally requested the retirement of the vast majority of the soldiers that were depleted and kept on strolling a couple with him to the city of Khoi in Azerbaijan. He sent his significant other and his clergyman Nizam al-Mulk to Hamedan and didn’t consider getting back to his capital and assembled his troopers and called for battle. He considered hanging tight for fortifications would not be in support of himself and chose to defy the immense multitude of Byzantines with his warriors. In his well known book “The History of the Seljuks,” the prestigious Iranian antiquarian Isfahani says, “He stayed with 15,000 horsemen of the elites of his men, and every one riding a pony and another close by while the rum in the middle of Rumi, Russians, Oğuz, Caucasians, Abkhazian, Khazars, Franks and Armenians were about 300000 (300K) Army. in eastern and southeastern Anatolia, by the movements and conquests of the Seljuks, led by Alp Arslan, the Byzantines were greatly disturbed and annoyed.
Emperor Romanos IV was determined to come up with a large army that would destroy the Seljuks and secure the borders of his empire. to prove himself as an emperor and assert his legitimacy, the new emperor needed a great victory and success. Even though he was a great leader and warrior and hailed from an eminent family, he did not descend from the dynasty but was Army General but was crowned emperor after marrying Empress Edukia Makramboltisa, widow of Emperor Constantine X Dukas. Historians differed in determining the number of members of the Byzantine army, some of them say that the army of the emperor had 200,000 or more than 200000 soldiers of different races, while some other historians say that they were 300,000. However, most sources say that the Byzantine army numbered 300,000 against 15,000 soldiers with Sultan Alp Arslan, including 4,000 of what we might call “special forces” accompanying the Sultan.
The sultan arrived with his soldiers, while the Byzantine emperor was camped in a place known as al-Rahwa, between Akhallat and Manzikert. Alp Arslan sent the emperor a messenger offering him a truce. But the emperor refused and said, “There is no truce except in Rey [Rhagae], the capital of the Seljuks, and do in the country of Islam what they did in the country of the Romans.” After attending the Friday prayer, Alp Arslan donned a white dress, held the tail of his horse, and delivered a speech to his soldiers. “Whoever loves to follow me, follow me to the battle and those who want to go away, go away with my blessings. We are all equal in the service of Islam. I’m here not as the sultan who commands and or gives soldiers orders. I desire martyrdom. If I die in the battle, bury me in the same place under the leadership of my son, Malik Shah.” continue jihad. A soldier approached Alp Arslan and said, “A great enemy army is approaching us.” Sultan Arslan returned to him and said, “We are also approaching them.” The two armies met and fought a fierce battle that lasted until the sun’s demise. Sultan Alp Arslan was at the front of the ranks fighting with great courage. During the battle, the Seljuks carried out Turkey’s famous war tactic and pretended to withdraw its soldiers while ordering other groups of soldiers to hide in positions close to the battlefield. The Byzantine army thought that the Seljuks were retreating and followed them for a long distance, but they were unable to catch up with them due to a lot of equipment and the weight of their armor, while the Turkish cavalry was lighter and more agile. Shortly afterward, hiding groups of soldiers began to surround the Byzantine army from behind in a crescent-like form. The Seljuks showered the Byzantines with a barrage of arrows and killed thousands. The Seljuks soldiers surrounded the heart of the Byzantine army under Romanus and cut it off from the rest of the army.
The Seljuk army pursued the disbanded army and succeeded in repelling it Then the cavalry returned to confront the Byzantine army. The Turk Soldiers began to exterminate the army of the emperor Romanus. Before sunset, the Seljuks won a clear victory over the Byzantine army, killing most of them, and the rest fled. Romanos was taken, prisoner. For the first time in history, a Byzantine emperor became the prisoner of a Muslim commander. Sultan Alp Arslan scolded the emperor for not accepting the truce and insisting on fighting Muslims. He asked the emperor, if I was brought before you as a prisoner? “What would you have done. The emperor replied, “Perhaps I’d kill you or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople.” Alp Arslan replied, “What do you think I should do to you?” The emperor said, “There are three options. The first is killing me, the second is exhibiting me in your country, which I want to take from you, and the last one is not something you would do to me.” Alp Arslan asked the emperor what the final option was. “Forgiving me and accepting the ransom for letting me get back to my kingdom. Alp Arslan said he chooses the last one, and uttered the historic words, “I forgive you and set you free.” and sending you back to your kingdom with Respect. Romanos was in shock as he did not expect such generosity from a rival. Alp Arslan treated him peacefully and respectfully. A ransom of 1.5 million gold dinars was later agreed upon; however, when Romanos returned to his capital, he was dethroned. He wrote to Arslan, “As emperor, I promised you a ransom of a million and a half. Dethroned, and about to become dependent upon others, I send you all I possess as proof of my gratitude.” He could collect only 300,000 dinars, which he sent to Alp Arslan with a humble request to accept it. Sultan Alp Arslan pardoned the rest with his symbolic generosity. When Emperor Romanos returned to his territory with the good sense of Islam, his courtiers deposed him, cruelly blinded him on June 29, 1072, and exiled him to Prote where he died of his wounds.
The news of the Seljuks’ victory over the Byzantine army spread throughout the Muslim world and the Abbasid caliph Al-Qaim sent a letter to Sultan Alp Arslan congratulating him on a great victory and he titled him as the greatest sultan of the Arabs and the “Ajam.” The victory of Manzikert is considered as the opening of Anatolia to Turkish tribes and clans. Sultan Alp Arslan allowed all commanders and tribal chiefs, who were with him in the war, to carry out offensives and conquests in Anatolia. Thus the first period of Turkish Anatolia began to appear. This was also a prelude to the establishment of the Seljuk Anatolian state or the Seljuk Rum. Then, the Ottoman Empire — the most powerful empire in Turkish history — followed its Seljuk ancestors.