Pakistan Human Resources

Pakistan: Human Resources

Labour Force And Employment
On the basis of the estimated population of 148.72 million and the participation rate of 29.61 percent, as per the Labour Force Survey 2001-02, the total labour force is estimated at 45.05 million. Of this, 30.19 million or 67.03 percent is in the rural areas and 14.85 million or 32.97 percent is in the urban areas.

 

Population Growth and Literacy Rates (1999 to 2003)
Mid Year Total Population (Million) Growth Rate (%)

Literacy Rate (%)

Rate % Change
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
136.64
139.76
142.86
145.96
149.03(E)
2.29
2.24
2.22
2.16
2.10
45.0
47.1
49.0
50.5
51.6
3.2
4.7
4.0
3.1
2.2

E: Estimated
Source: Population Census Organization & Ministry of Planning & Dev. Division

 


Selected Demographic Indicators
Indicators Year (2003)
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
Crude Death Rate
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
(per 100 thousand live birth)
Life Expectancy Male
Female                                             
4.3
27.3
8
83
350-435

63

 

Employed Labour Force By Sectors
(No. in million)
Sector  2003
  No. % Share
Agriculture:
Manufacturing & Mining:
Construction:
Wholesale & Retail Trade:
Transport:
Finance, Insurance, Community & Social Services:
Others:  
19.08
4.55
2.28
5.32
1.98
5.92
0.28
48.42
11.55
5.78
13.50
5.03
15.02
0.70
Total:    39.41 100.00
     

 Economy of Pakistan :

Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and declining exports of manufactures. Faced with untenable budgetary deficits, high inflation, and hemorrhaging foreign exchange reserves, the government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008. Between 2004-07, GDP growth in the 6-8% range was spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors, despite severe electricity shortfalls. Poverty levels decreased by 10% since 2001, and Islamabad steadily raised development spending in recent years. In 2008 the fiscal deficit – a result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending – exceeded Islamabad’s target of 4% of GDP. Inflation remains the top concern among the public, jumping from 7.7% in 2007 to 24.4% in 2008, primarily because of rising world fuel and commodity prices. In addition, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated significantly as a result of political and economic instability.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $452.7 billion (2008 est.) $427.9 billion (2007) $404.5 billion (2006)
GDP (official exchange rate): $160.9 billion (2008 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 5.8% (2008 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2008 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 20.4%
industry: 26.6%
services: 53% (2008 est.)
Labor force: 50.58 million note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2008 est.)
Labor force – by occupation: agriculture: 43%
industry: 20.3%
services: 36.6% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.4% plus substantial underemployment (2008 est.)
Population below poverty line: 24% (FY05/06 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 26.3% (2002)
Distribution of family income – Gini index: 30.6 (FY07/08)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20.8% (2008 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 20% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budget: revenues: $22.14 billion
expenditures: $32.09 billion (2008 est.)
Public debt: 49.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
Agriculture – products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs
Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp
Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (2008 est.)
Electricity – production: 93.26 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 68.4 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Oil – production: 68,670 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil – consumption: 345,000 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil – exports: 28,060 bbl/day (2005)
Oil – imports: 290,600 bbl/day (2005)
Oil – proved reserves: 289.2 million bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas – production: 30.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas – consumption: 30.8 billion cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas – exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas – imports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves: 792.8 billion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance: -$10.57 billion (2008 est.)
Exports: $20.62 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Exports – commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs
Exports – partners: US 18%, UAE 10.4%, Afghanistan 8.4%, China 5.2%, UK 4.7% (2007)
Imports: $35.38 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
Imports – commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea
Imports – partners: China 16.2%, Saudi Arabia 10.9%, UAE 10.1%, US 5.7%, Kuwait 4.9%, Japan 4.4% (2007)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $9.104 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Debt – external: $43.23 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $25.31 billion (2008 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: $1.032 billion (2008 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $70.26 billion (31 December 2007)
Currency (code): Pakistani rupee (PKR)
Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PKR) per US dollar – 70.64 (2008 est.), 60.6295 (2007), 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004)
Fiscal year: 1 July – 30 June
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