Rise Of Mughal Empire
Mughals by family line were the direct descendants of Genghis Khan second son Chaghtai Khan. The empire itself was an extension of Timurid Dynasty, named after its founder Amir Timur or Tamerlane. The Timurid Empire ruled Persia and modern Central Asia virtually unchallenged from 1370 till 1507.
Mughal Empire was founded by Emperor Babur, who was the grandson of Timur. Babur was born in 1483 at Fergana Valley,which is at the crossroad of modern day Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. He became ruler of Fergana at the age of eleven,
but lost both Fargana and later captured Samarkand due to in-house struggle primarily with his brother Jahangir. By 1502 he was without any formal territory,and took refuge in Tashkent which was ruled by his maternal uncle.
With all hopes lost of winning back his ancestor all and, Babur set his eyes on Kabul in Afghanistan. In 1504, he crossed snow covered Hindu Kush mountains and defeated Arghun Dynasty under Ulugh Baig Mirza. Till 1526, he ruled Kabul but his sight were on Sub continent, owing to the great fortunes associated with it.
He assembled a superior fighting force, courtesy special aid from Ottoman Turks and started his conquest of sub-continent which was then ruled by the Lodhi Dynasty. The showdown between the two forces was fought between the two armies at Panipat (Present day India) on twentieth April 1526.
Although outnumbered, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and formed the foundation of Mughal Empire that would last till 1857. In its golden age, the empire covered entire Indian Subcontinent as well as parts of Afghanistan. Spread over an area of four million square kilo meters, the Mughal Empire was the third largest empire witnessed by the region ever. Near eighteenth century,
History Of Mughal Empire In English
Mughal Empire under Emperor Aurangzeb had over twenty five percent of the world total population under its folds,amounting to one hundred and fifty million subjects.
By seventeenth century, Mughal Empire was the largest economic power of the world, with a quarter of global industrial produce coming from the empire. It is rightly rated among the three greatest Islamic Gunpowder empires along with the Ottoman’s and Safavid’s. Mughal Empire gave many innovative and unique features in administration, economy, labor practices, industry and military.
For administration, the Mughal Empire was divided into Provinces which were termed as Subah. Each province was headed by a governor known as Subahdar. They were further divided into counties for effective and efficient administration. The main administrative divisions of subcontinent under Mughal Empire comprised of following Mughal economy was its driving force and success in the region.
By sixteenth century, Mughal Empire was contributing almost twenty five percent to the global economy, only preceded by Ming Empire in China. However, by seventeenth century the Mughal’s surpassed Ming’s to claim the crown for world largest economic might.