TURKISH-AMERICAN RELATIONS: OTTOMAN RELEASE
In this period where Turkish-American relations are talked extensively, Let’s take a look at the lines, without taking a look. It will be appropriate to treat Ottoman-American relations as basically ‘trade’ and ‘missionary’ England, Seven Years’ War with France to the colonies in America to cover economic losses.
Brought a heavy tax liability. On top of this, the 13 British colonies in the continent united and rebelled against England and they were independent in 1783. In the short term, the United States will not limit its occupation Expanded.
Population and economies have grown rapidly. Abd, who gives importance to the international trade in the establishment process of the state, as a target. When he tried to enter the Mediterranean market, they made some agreements.
Two American ships traveling in the western Mediterranean have been taken over by the Ottoman Algerian, Turkish-American relations had begun indirectly by taking prisoners.
Turkish And American Relations
American senator to make comfortable trade in the western Mediterranean, Algeria in 1795 Dayisi made an agreement with Hasan Pasha. In accordance with this agreement, which is prepared in Turkish and Ottoman rhetoric, He was willing to pay 12,000 gold taxes. Abd continued to give this tax up until the 1810 s.
Similar agreements were made with Tunisia and Tripoli. Abd, who wants to do safe trade in the east of the Mediterranean, He knew. Therefore, many times it was a chance to sign an agreement with the Ottoman Empire. American businessmen and traders are trading in many ports especially Izmir. It started from a distance. The first official delegation came to Istanbul in November 1800 and presented pavilion gifts.
These negotiations were led by the British consulate. The US government, which wants to get out of British supervision and set up a consulate, The Ottoman was engulfed and sometimes unable to accept the situation in his own senate. American business man David Offley in 1811 at the authority of his own state in Izmir informal officially founded the American Trade Center. This institution which regulates commercial relations was officially recognized by the Ottoman Empire in 1823.
Thus, the first great connection between the two countries was established. For years he was waiting for the US wants Turkey to deal door 1830 year.
British, French and Russians burned Turkish navy in Navarin in 1827 and then the Russian state after the Ottoman war, the Turkish state, looking for new friendships started. On May 7, 1830, the Ottoman-US Trade and Seyrisfain The treaty was signed. The name given to the other side by the Turks in the treaty was Cemahir-i Müttefika-i Amerika. With this 9-point agreement, the United States, which has won many concessions, the city had the right to establish consulates and low customs brokerage in the Ottoman waters.
Construction of ships at a cost price for the Ottoman navy, Istanbul Tersanesi Technical assistance by US engineers on shipbuilding, There was also a secret ingredient foreseeing. However, this confidential matter is being used by the US Senate for the sake of contravening US interests denied. The rejection of the secret material was extremely uncomfortable with Babylon. In fact, the Sultan II. Mahmoud expressed this outrage upon this development;
” The customs of the Frenks are never to be spoken by the words of their self, shameless, they will soon become self-discipline, and they will look at what is happening. ” When Mahmut is angry and does not put the agreement into force, the President of the United States, and the senate had not ratified the US government had accepted the material under the hand. Henry Eckford, one of the USA’s most famous marine engineers, he came to Istanbul with a war ship he had built. And so the deal went into effect. American engineers built more than 10 frigates in Istanbul until 1840 s.
After the agreement, the trade gained momentum. Many American companies have started to operate around the country. Singer Sewing Machines Company, one of these companies,
There would be 200 vendors across the country. Americans are looking for cotton fields and mineral deposits in Ottoman soil. They began. On the other hand, later on the Ottoman Empire in the US the share of the made-up ihrââtâ up to 23%. In 1862, a more comprehensive trade agreement was signed. This agreement was unilaterally annulled in 1884 by Abdulhamid II later;
The treaty of 1830 continued to be applied with some changes. For the 1870 s, the Ottomans had the material prohibiting arms trade in these agreements to import weapons. Especially after the 93rd Sultan Abdulhamid ordered a very large amount of weapons. In the second half of the 19th century, the relations between the two countries changed in many ways. Especially when the Ottoman Empire lost 93 Harbin, everything changed in size.
The western states were at one and the same time the Ottoman supremacy went from 1 to 10. Britain gave up the Ottoman territorial integrity policy. Whichever of the Turks you can tear it down, 93 Harbi was one of the turning points of Ottoman history.
The US, which is not as influential as other western states, started to throw more often. Immediately after the war, he and his followers took the protection of the Armenians began to put pressure on the government. Beyond the ocean, decisions about Armenian rights were being taken.
The goal was to have a say in the region where it was obvious that it was fragmented. Even in those years from the US, intervention in the internal affairs of Turkey’s task was belle. When he did this, the doctrine of non-interference with US political processes outside the continent was in effect. Besides, Abd, when he did not get the privileges he wanted between 1850 and 1914, threatened and circulated the war ship in the Mediterranean.
The American war ships, who came to Istanbul, often took what they wanted commercially. The lines in an archive document dated 1895 indicate that the Ottoman State summarizes foreign policy; “Americans are always Christians iltizam They’re. Anyway, the sentiments of the Americans are devastating to the Government of Islam, This is not the practice of the executive.
Because the government is not from the point of life, but from the political and the interests It is. ” It is understandable that the state has had its say, but the rules of politics are different, He was acting.
Missionary Activities :
The second leg of the relationship was missionary. On the one hand, the United States is working to influence trade and navy in an effort to create an impact through educational and health activities that seemed humane. Of course, these health and education activities lay in missionary ideas.
Protestant missionaries at the meeting of the Ottoman territory to the American missionary organization He was transferred. Immediately after the 1830 treaty, American presence in the Ottoman State health and education sector.
Because economic privileges have also led to the acquisition of political life areas at the same time. Years of signing of trade treaties between 1830 and 1862 were missionary in the Ottoman State It was the period when the movement expanded and settled. The liberty imposed by the Islahat ferman also strengthened the United States.
As these activities do not work on Muslims, Armenians are elected as targets. Missionary propaganda made from education to health in a variety of ways then gave the desire on the Armenian nation. Gregorian Armenians began to become Protestants after the 1850 s. The activities of the American doctors in the Armenian territories also began in 1859.
An example of the activities of these doctors can be seen very superficially in the film “Ottoman Lieutenant”. As much as the Ottoman government can determine; missionary and the Armenian population he was trying to prevent the establishment of consulates in places. But the agreements and threats made made the government desperate. Abd, Turks, threatened to propaganda against the Ottomans in the west.
They also supported separatist rebellions in the period. On the one hand, countries are improving their trade, but on the other hand, It showed. What the Protestant Armenian population in the region meant for the US was the American Protestant it is possible to see them in reports and letters written by missionaries. In the face of the Armenian rebellion of the Ottoman State in Zeytun,
John Merill from the missionaries in the region on the transfer to the American Consulate in Aleppo he made the following assessment in his letter; “.reading of the Maraş region and the empowerment of the talented Christian people, the interests of American missionaries it is direct. A study that spent more than 50 years and thousands of dollars are introduced … ”
From here it can be understood that for the Armenians living in the Ottoman State, The US has very innocent plans …
This is how relations between the two countries began.